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PATHOGENES Research Topic

history, diffusion, resistance and genomics

Animators of the theme : Didier HOCQUET, Anaïs POTRON

This theme brings together researchers working on microbial pathogens, a field of study that has recently been strengthened by the integration of researchers in virology and cell biology (from the EA3181 team, Carcinogenesis associated with HPV).

1. Presentation and general problematic

The common objectives of this theme are to understand and identify the factors favouring the emergence, selection and dissemination of PAs. Environmental changes, human-animal interactions, contamination by mutation-selective agents and genetic transfers modify the evolutionary history of these pathogens at the level of the human population, the microbial community (microbiota) and the PA cell (single cell). The particularity of this theme is that it has an integrated approach, ranging from observations (clinical or in the field) and phenotypic characterisations of PAs, to the deciphering of molecular pathophysiological mechanisms using ’omics’ tools. This group brings together medical and molecular biologists, clinicians, ecologists, paleoecologists, bioinformaticians, mathematicians and statisticians around a common theme. This diversity of skills and approaches to PAs allows us to analyse past and present relationships between humans and PAs with an integrated One Health vision and to participate in several major national challenges (ANR, One Water, Axis H.3. Infectious diseases and environment, Axis H.4. Public health, health, societies) and European challenges (JPI- AMR: "to improve the understanding of the transmission mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in humans, animals and the environment and to enable the implementation of surveillance measures and interventions to limit the transmission of resistance genes, antimicrobial residues and resistant organisms"). Ultimately, the major objective of this approach is to be able to transfer the knowledge gained to the management of patients and to the benefit of human populations exposed to HAs.

2. Structure of the project in 5 years
The Pathogens theme is structured in three complementary axes, which organise research "from the field and the clinic to molecular biology" on microbial species belonging to all the major groups of PA (bacteria, parasites, yeasts, fungi, mites and viruses).

Axis 1 - Dissemination of human pathogens

The dissemination of human pathogens (HP) is studied using collections of micro-organisms isolated from samples of human origin, but also from the environment (professional, domestic, hospital) and animals (livestock and wildlife).

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Axis 2 - Antimicrobial resistance (AR)

The fight against antimicrobial resistance is a major public health challenge and is based on the study of the prevalence and identification of the gene determinants of resistance to antibacterial and antifungal agents.

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Axis 3 - Host-pathogen interaction

The study of the host-pathogen relationship is based on an immunological approach that makes it possible to quantify exposure to PAs in various environments (clinical samples, air, water, dust and food) by measuring the antibodies produced (IgE for immediate allergic responses and IgG for infectious and immuno-allergic responses).

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