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ANR-ArkaeoAG ‒ History, origin and spread of Agriculture: new evidences from Archaebotany and Paleogenomics

In progress: 01-03-2021 → 02-03-2025

Agro-sylvo-pastoral Areas

Project ANR

ArkaeoAG aims at tracing the origin and spread of Agriculture during the Holocene as a major process in the socio-economic structuring of modern civilization. To reach this objective ArkaeoAG brings specialists in paleogenomics, evolutionary biology, archaeobotany, carpology and palaeoecology in studying wheat (Triticum spp.) remains preserved in sediments. From 65 referenced archaeological sites delivering access to 88 assemblages of wheat grain and bread remains from 12 taxa and dating to 9500 BC-1500 AD, ArkaeoAG proposes, through archaeobotany (investigating past human-plant interactions, WP1) and paleogenomic (investigating ancient DNA, WP2) data integration (WP3), to provide novel insights into the fascinating history of a plant species - wheat – that, since its origin in the Fertile Crescent in the early Neolithic period, has spread with human communities to all continents to become the main cereal crop worldwide, comprising nowadays several thousand recorded modern varieties adapted to a wide range of environments and human uses. Different centres of origins, contacts, migrations or exchanges between founder farmers and their cultivated wheat species, independent spread over Europe, all these historical events will be recovered in the wheat archaeological and aDNA investigations covering the last 10,000 years.

Holder: Jérôme Salse (INRAE Clermont-Ferrand)


Caroline Schaal (CE Besançon)

Jérôme Salse (INRAE Clermont-Ferrand)

Ludovic Orlando (CAGT Toulouse)

Manon Cabanis (Inrap ARA)

Margareta Tengberg (MNHN Paris)

Research locations:

International synthesis
National synthesis
Sudan South Sudan Georgia Abkhazia South Ossetia Peru Burkina Faso France Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes Bourgogne-Franche-Comté Bretagne Centre-Val de Loire Corse Grand Est Haut-de-France Île-de-France Normandie Nouvelle-Aquitaine Occitanie Pays de la Loire Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur Guadeloupe Martinique La Réunion Mayotte Guyane Libya Belarus Pakistan Azad Kashmir Indonesia Yemen Madagascar Bolivia, Plurinational State of Serbia Kosovo Cote d'Ivoire Algeria Switzerland Cameroon Macedonia, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Botswana Kenya Jordan Mexico United Arab Emirates Belize Brazil Sierra Leone Mali Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Italy Somalia Somaliland Afghanistan Bangladesh Dominican Republic Guinea-Bissau Ghana Austria Sweden Turkey Uganda Mozambique New Zealand Cuba Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Portugal Colombia Mauritania Angola Germany Thailand Australia Papua New Guinea Iraq Croatia Greenland Niger Denmark Latvia Romania Zambia Myanmar Ethiopia Guatemala Suriname Czech Republic Chad Albania Finland Syrian Arab Republic Kyrgyzstan Solomon Islands Oman Panama Argentina United Kingdom Costa Rica Paraguay Guinea Ireland Nigeria Tunisia Poland Namibia South Africa Egypt Tanzania, United Republic of Saudi Arabia Viet Nam Russian Federation Crimea Haiti Bosnia and Herzegovina India China Hong Kong Macao Taiwan Canada El Salvador Guyana Belgium Equatorial Guinea Lesotho Bulgaria Burundi Djibouti Azerbaijan Nagorno-Karabakh Iran, Islamic Republic of Malaysia Philippines Uruguay Congo Montenegro Estonia Rwanda Armenia Senegal Togo Spain Gabon Hungary Malawi Tajikistan Cambodia Korea, Republic of Honduras Iceland Nicaragua Chile Morocco Western Sahara Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (Free Zone) Liberia Netherlands Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Central African Republic Slovakia Lithuania Zimbabwe Sri Lanka Israel Gaza Strip (State of Palestine) West Bank (State of Palestine) Lao People's Democratic Republic Korea, Democratic People's Republic of Greece Turkmenistan Ecuador Benin Slovenia Norway Moldova, Republic of Transnistria Ukraine Donetsk People's Republic Luhansk People's Republic Lebanon Nepal Eritrea United States